Timeline of United States history

Accesible rooms are available on this category and can be requested in the comments section during the checkout step online. Pennsylvania gubernatorial election, Many Filipino painters were influenced by this and started using materials such as extract from onion, tomato, tuba , coffee , rust, molasses and other materials available anywhere as paint. Parliament repeals the Townshend Acts with the exception of the tax on tea. A dust explosion at a mine near Scofield, Utah killed over two hundred miners. Dave — The bars are mostly scattered around, a few spots is mango square where u go after 3. The Electoral Commission awarded Rutherford B.


Motives for the WTC bombing:

Girls of Love City are dancing so well. Guys I recently visited the Silver Dollar Bar on Jones St in downtown Cebu and with the new owners and the upgrades and hiring of new beautiful girls it is my pick for the best bikini bar in all of Cebu. Squid — yes this is most certainly true and does happen often. However, it does not happen too often with girls from the bars. You will mostly likely have this type of experience with a girl off the streets.

I read a review from another website stating that the newest scam is for women to return to your hotel room later with a cop friend and say she was raped. They are all justified.

Neither your lawyer, nor the BI, nor your fellow citizens. If anyone who reads this knows a club with no cheating, no rip-off, no scam, and no fraudulence, I gonna invite him or her to join me visiting that club on my expenses.

Just leave a message here with date, time, and location where we can meet. Where the heck is the Hot Rod Club you are recommending so warmly? Just drop a message here at this site. I am headed to Cebu, and where can I find a pretty lady to escort me around and show me a great time!

Hi I have a question concerning excitement for my Asawa,she loves to dance and interact with a lady,are there any clubs where we could find a Bi lady to interact? Gee trisha you sound good! I wish that barfine and drink prices were published for every bar listed here. The girls expect an extra P tip in addition to their part of the barfine.

We met this older Filipino guy a few months back whom said he was working at Koala club and raved about the place. Will be visiting there next week for bit of a peep…. Often in Park Mall which must be close by but as yet not seen your sign. Probably Gecko bar — failing that lone star — but music there would over power the TV. But could you include some maps, showing bar locations? Something simple, such as those found at http: I was trying and failed to find a bar to watch Liverpool play last Sunday night.

Where would be best for this in the Fuente Osmena region? Hi bruce I am the owner of Koala Club the bar is on the highway going north of Cebu at basak Mandaue next to Shell Select in answer to your? Just wondering as met somebody on a boat that was talking about it from a year ago. Are there any plans to reopen the Cadillac Cafe in Mactan?

Best place in Philippines. Best Food, great atomosphere, prettiest girls. Please tell me they will open again. This is a great site and the reviews are thorough.. I will be coming to Cebu… but can anyone recommend the best site for reviewing Makati bars in Manila with the same level of detail? I do not agree about blue angels being much better than stripes as far as I am concerned angels does not come close.

I also think it is much more professionally run. When i was in angels I felt very ucomfortable and it was all pinoy with many cops. It is not twice as big as stripes either.

The stripes food is the best I have has so far anywhere as american food goes, Just my opinion and who the hell am I anyway!!!! Hi Krystal, Send your email address to giantcod hotmail. Try fuente pension house Llorente Street 3 minutes from Mango square , often fully booked so go around 12 mid day as even if people checking out same day they will say its fully booked.

Also opposite is apple tree pension house P a night. New hotel in the small arcade between Llorente and mango said to be good at P You could try Kukoks nest — they have some basic rooms for less than that I think. Found some links, but they forgot to list the phone number doh!

Hi Guys great site.. I was just wondering is there many any basic hotels situated near Mango square, costing around 20 US dollars or so a night?

Last time i was there there were about 20 girls and the mamasan is Tina from Blackhole. Its a lot better than stripes because its twice the size and has a nice billiard table and a big LCD screen TV. Nice girls as well some from Blackhole and a lot of new ones as well.

Pricing is about the same as per Stripes. Cheers for that — try this. After drinking several of these you will always find yourself in a bar as if by magic! Solution 1 Stand outside Golden Peak and drink Red horse — Stripes is the closest bar so the red horse should carry you to it without further bother.

Solution 2 If for any ridiculous reason the above does not work, go to Golden Peak and go out in the Rd. Now walk straight — cross the junction. Stripes is set back about 20m from the main road on the right, behind a Filipino grill. After the junction carry on straight for about 50 — meters and you will see it there on the right,.

Hi I am reasonably familular with Cebu how ever yet to find Stripes……. On Escario, about 1 mins walk from the Golden Peak hotel — short taxi ride from Mango. I tried both ways on Escario …Is it a back entrance please? Maybe 1 San Mig to many…. How can I contact you when I spend vacation in Cebu next year? I know the many of the girls from bars are happy to do deals like that so I guess the guys will be as well.

Hi, is there any bar where I can find a good-looking man to be hired as an escort for 3 — 5 days? Yes — you can hire a bar girl as a tour guide for a few weeks. You could probably give her less, but at that price — is there any need to be tight?

Best idea is to visit a few bars first and find a girl that you like — try and find a smart one, it will make your tour easier and more interesting.

After deciding on one you like, be discreet and all should be OK. Or does anyone care?? Size 36D is a big ass titty…simmer down buddy boy. I think a C cup will be just fine. You have the best web site I have read yet on reviewing Cebu bars.

Keep up the great work, we appreciate it alot. Would be nice if you could include a page with a simple map of the locations, because not everyone is familiar with the streets Anyway, Thanks alot for your hard work!!! I have a few questions. Your review about Stripes.

When will they begin serving food? How many girls were working in Stripes when you were there? In your reviews of the bars are there any bars with big chested girls?

Thank you for your help I will be in Cebu in a few weeks. You can send your answers to teacherchina hotmail. Hailed as the country's Queen City of the South and the Mother of all Island Festivals, Cebu is greatly hallowed with generous natural resources. From north to south, a multitude of stifling tourist destinations would greet you.

Hence, from east to west, a delightful offering and an extensive display of exhilarating beauty of Mother Nature will awe every tourist in addition to the number of Cebu massage salons, the Cebu bars, the scores of club Cebu has, the party atmosphere of Cebu nightlife and the gorgeous Cebu girls and visitors along the way.

White sand beaches, bountiful marine sanctuaries and diving spots, breath-taking heights of waterfalls, age-old structures, and exotic dishes, what else would you wish for? This destination will surely captivate one's heart and imagination. And what is even better is that when you roam around Cebu, there is always a lovely Cebu girl that will take your breath away. A Cebu girl that you see around in the city are indeed good natured and friendly. And that is not all, the girls in Cebu are also accommodating and hospitable.

Most of the Cebuanos took a large part of the Visayan community and in the Visayan region at large. The Cebuano culture is a concoction of the various invasions of the region - the Chinese, the Spaniards, the Hindus, the Japanese and Americans. And with these unique fusions creates a beautiful girl in Cebu that is waiting to be discovered. Although, the great and prominent warrior of Mactan - Lapu-Lapu, defeated the Spanish conquistador - Ferdinand Magellan, in a glorious duel depicted in Kadaugan sa Mactan, Cebu has still been influenced largely by the Spanish culture.

For this reason, Cebu Nightlife was created. It has always been the problem of some party goers who are not that aware of the recent Cebu nightlife.

This dilemma is also shared by some party goers who originally come from the neighbouring provinces. During our review, we discovered that Cebu girls and a lot of Cebu naughty girls love to experience what it is like to grind, dance, party and experience the exhilarating nightlife in Cebu in any bar in Cebu, the bad thing is that they are not that familiar with the any of the club Cebu locations, and all the Cebu bars.

That is why; Cebu-Nightlife web site with the most comprehensive Cebu bar guide is here to assist you! These colourful highlights of the Cebuano culture clearly attest that the Cebuano people and most Cebu girls are joyous and happy people - and this is evidently manifested in the crowding Cebu bars, Cebu massage salons and Cebu clubs that spell out the cool and lively Cebu night life and Cebu discos. Week nights, most especially Friday nights are never dull for Cebuano people with all the scattered Cebu bar in the metropolitan.

Cebuano nightlife has always been an anticipated moment for every young and the not so young Cebuanos. In most places there is always a bar in Cebu and a number club Cebu discos, and they are loaded with Cebu girls, exciting, hot Cebu naughty girls and flirtatious Cebu bar girls, the best thing about it is they are everywhere and are accessible to all party goers whether you have a personal car or not. What is more exciting about Cebuano party specifically these Cebu bars, is that they are far more peaceful compared to the bars and clubs in other cities like Manila and other major cities in the country.

The nightlife in Cebu guide you through and about what makes it more thrilling, where to met a lovely Cebu girl, and loaded with bar girls Cebu employs who only thought of nothing but to enjoy and party like there is no tomorrow. When you opt to experience to any Cebu bar, Cebu discos and go to Cebu clubs, the exciting Cebu nightlife, some exciting Cebu massage spa, or any bar in Cebu, you are yet to experience another night of non-stop dancing with gorgeous Cebu girls, drinking and merry making.

The review will show you that Cebuanos are optimistic and joyful people. During our Cebu bar review, which we have taken from our Cebu bar guide, we cover the success of the club Cebu has and the continuous booming of the various Cebu massage spas, and the number of the Cebu bars greatly tell of the unstoppable growth of Cebu nightlife. Cebu discos, and the various Cebu bars and scores of Cebu clubs make up the liveliness and ecstasy of Cebu nightlife, of course with pretty Cebu bar girls.

With the existence of some bikini bar, numerous club Cebu establishments and the dozens of alluring of Cebu bar establishments and some striptease bars in the city, one can really profess the unbearable sexiness of the girls in Cebu and naughtiness of those Cebu naughty girls.

And there is always a bar in Cebu that you can find where customers can ask to sit with a Cebu girl while diluting some drinks. Some Cebu bar around the city even allow their Cebu bar girls to be taken out - with some bar fine - and what the customer does after leaving is up to the customer and the Cebu girl.

These hot Cebu girls are the primary enticement of striptease and bikini bar Cebu, any other Cebu bar and some club Cebu which are mostly visited by foreigners. The inexorable height of success of the nightlife in Cebu is one of the reasons of the inexorable success of the region's tourism Cebu sex industry and the Cebu nightlife business. Cebu Night life would only comprise of a mere group drinking matched with funny talks and eternal hopping in various bars in Cebu and exclusive clubs.

And of course, any Cebu bar, or most of the Cebu discos will never be complete without the girls in Cebu gracing in every club Cebu has. The night life in Cebu is smashing and typically starts at late ten in the evening and usually ends at three or four in the morning. During these time frames Cebuano men would round up the entire district of Cebu and jump from one Cebu bar to another and look for a gorgeous Cebu girl.

And because the City is not that big, getting from one bar to another is easy, especially at night time where traffic is not heavy. This makes it easy to find some party loving Cebu girls and easy to party hard in a short time. A typical girl in Cebu would go out with her girlfriends in a not so crowded Cebu bar as long as the Cebu disco ambiance and music is fine.

But, once they get into any Cebu bar, these young ladies just let things loose and unleash their party animal inside. It is a fact that most Cebuano ladies love to dance and sing, so with every Cebu nightlife, and any the exciting Cebu bar there is always something to look forward. You can always refer to our sensational Cebu bar guide. And anyone who has been to any club Cebu have to offer, will never experience and boring time even for a single moment. Cebu Nightlife web site, more than just a Cebu bar review website, is always here to catering your inquiries as far as your gimmick escapade is concerned.

All you need to do is log on to www. Indeed, it is that easy and quick! Having made and number of intensive Cebu bar reviews, you can now rest yourself from annoying your friends by asking them roundabout questions of the exact addresses of these Cebu bars, clubs and Cebu discos; Even to the discretely located bars in Cebu especially in unspoken Cebu bikini bars.

Thus, you can now enjoy the excitement and fun effortlessly. The moment you log on to Cebu-Nightlife web site, you can immediately see the in the left part of the home page, the complete list and index of the Cebu bar review, and Cebu clubs that definitely make the Cebu night life more hot and exciting. This site is often updated with interesting sections where you can spot the most recent opening of the new Cebu bars and where to meet exciting Cebu girl.

The height and hype of these bikini bars Cebu paved way to the fast and successful development of the Cebu nightlife. The more foreigners enjoy the ecstasy of the city's night life offered by these Cebu bars and the delight of these Cebu bar girls and the alluring Cebu naughty girls; the status of foreign monetary returns will boost the economy of Cebu.

In the same way, more foreign investors would like to invest business ventures inside the city. With the influx of the tourism industry sky rocketing, a number of Cebu massage salons, oodles Cebu bar and the loads of club Cebu spas have sprung in most part of the City. Our Cebu bar review shows how tourist and visitors can really enjoy during their stay; and to give them a hassle-free partying, offering excellent features of Cebu-nightlife web site, with some captivating Cebu bar guide on some of the bars in Cebu or a number club Cebu places.

With the help of the bars in Cebu directory, Foreigners will now have an easy and direct access of the various Cebu clubs and the different Cebu massage spas in the city through our Cebu bar reviews. Filipino women are adhered to be one of the most beautiful women in the world. That is a universally accepted fact. There are many Filipinas that are famous all over the globe and have won international awards, made it to Hollywood, the international music industry and American television.

Filipino women or Filipinas are not beautiful but are also charming, delightful and totally friendly. The beauty of Filipinas has been mainly admired by all nationalities because of its beautiful blend of the Spanish, Chinese, Malay and American blood. This is one of the advantageous influences left behind by the foreign invaders of the country before.

When we claim that Filipino women are beautiful locally and internationally, we claim that by heart and with certain proof. If truth be told, there have been many Filipino women who have won beauty titles both locally and internationally. Hence, proud to be part of the lineage of the beautiful bloodline of the Filipino women, Cebu girls would never want to be superseded.

Any Cebu girl would stand out among the rest. In fact, just very recently, the intelligent, beautiful and proud Cebu girl, Karla Paula Henry awed the world with her intellectual answer, as she was then crowned Miss Earth for the very first time. This, without a doubt, defines the profundity of true Cebu girls and Cebu bar girls - beautiful and intellectual! And not only have that most of the Cebu girls are also had the expertise in really giving you total rejuvenation.

As a matter of fact, majority of the spas and salons employs young girls of Cebu. Because, apart from the overflowing and scrumptious drinking and nightlife guide you through eating choices, Cebu sex and breathtaking dancing and grinding, Cebu nightlife is also fashioned and filled with beautiful Cebu naughty girls, gorgeous, hot and sexy Cebu girls, who will ultimately make every man drool and lured.

For those who know any Cebu girl, would certainly know what I am talking about, however, for those who are still looking for one, then you are on for an exciting search. It is never new to Cebu clubs and the numerous bars in Cebu to see beautiful and sensual bar girls as well as Cebu's sensual girls who will strut their way to the night club Cebu and the most of the Cebu bars. And maybe after some heavy party you can head onto to Cebu massage spa for some total rejuvenation.

Our comprehensive Cebu bar reviews and our alluring source of Cebu nightlife directories shows that is why for most Cebuano men, nightlife in Cebu discos and any Cebu bar would be the perfect time for them to hook up with a Cebu girl and find prospect girlfriends could only mean as friend in the person of those Cebu bar girls as well as playful girls who are mostly found in bikini bars Cebu. This kind of cultural set-up only proves the uninterrupted Cebu sex freedom of expression for both sexes.

If the Cebuano men are allowed to hang out in the night, the Cebu girls and Cebu ladies are also free to hang out and unwind with their girl friends. Literally, the bar girls Cebu has are the spices of these night parties especially in almost any bar in Cebu and night clubs, specifically in bikini bar Cebu see our enticing Cebu bar reviews for more information.

They have been the attraction during parties and bar hopping gimmicks. For Cebuano men, foreigners or to anyone who wishes to see and meet up with pretty Cebu girls or any beautiful Cebu naughty girls, then you should not waste time and instead browse through the Cebu-Nightlife web site.

With the help of this Cebu bar directory and tips, you will instantly learn where to go and where to find these gorgeous Cebu girl and exciting, playful Cebu bar girls. This is to uphold the femininity and good reputation of the Cebu women. This shows that the welfare of the people is far more important than the economic status of Cebu City's night life, Cebu bars, the Cebu massage business and the city.

Our interesting bar review and our up-to-date Cebu nightlife guide tells you everything you need to know about the various nightspots and more about ladies in Cebu. The typical girl of Cebu is careful about how she carries herself especially when there are men around her.

More often than not, Cebu girls who come from the far flung provinces nor Cebu bars are more cautious in terms of dating men, compared to urban Cebu women and especially Cebu bar girls. This is because in the provincial areas, everyone knows the whole story about everyone - well most of them. So, to avoid from being the subject of the towns ridicule, you should be a Cebu girl who is prim and proper in actions all the time.

Moreover, the Cebu bar reviews might help you understand that Cebu women and any typical girl in Cebu are always anticipated to be playing hard to get. This is a typical Filipino dating trend. It has always been considered as an unbecoming behaviour in the dance of courtship if the Cebu girl will be easy to get any nightlife in Cebu and taking her to any Cebu bar.

That tradition is also one way of manifestation, wherein Cebu ladies can gauge and test the sincerity of her admirer or suitor. And if you think most Cebuanas are easy to get, then think again, as they love to play hard to get. As this is one way to measure the sincerity of her man. Love and romance have been a serious matter with conservative girls in Cebu.

Most of Cebu girls would even hail courtship as something sacred, to the extent that they will tire and torture their suitors with numerous test, obstacles and sacrifices. For instance, the Cebu Dating is one very important matter and big deal to any girl in Cebu.

If you fell in love with any girl in Cebu, then you must exert all the efforts you have gathered for yourself and to a certain extent, court her in the most conservative way of courtship possible - not be in too much of a rush to drag her through Cebu clubs, and in any bar in Cebu or even ask her our to joint you in one of the Cebu massage spas!

As not most Cebuanas are the not like most of the bar girls Cebu has. In that way, you can win the heart of the Cebuana. When you are going out on a date with a Cebu girl or even a Cebu bargirl, talking to her, and taking her to any Cebu bar or merely calling her on the phone; always make it certain that you are sincere and true in ways and nature.

After making the intensive Cebu bar reviews and visiting various club Cebu discos, we found that even up to this very moment of the modern era, there is still a Cebu girl, if not all, are still advocates of the conservative and old ways of courtship, therefore, making dating an effort to manifest and do.

To be wooed and courted with precious gifts and passionate love phrases is still the trend even in the current Cebu Dating. Of course, Cebu women and Cebu girls would still find it very romantic to see their admirers and suitors offering them flowers and chocolates while uttering the sweetest and the mushiest lines of "I love you" and "You are my life".

Cebu Dating indeed has always been romantic and passionate. This exciting dance of love among Cebuano men and a Cebu girl has always been upheld in the Cebuano culture, for it vividly mirrors the beautiful and colourful ways of manifesting love from a true Filipino man to his desired Filipina girl.

With this, Cebu Dating could be easier for every Cebuanos out there, who want to ask for the hand of a Cebuana. If you were having troubles with dating ideas or where to take your Cebu girls for some Cebu nightlife, then you should visit Cebu-Nightlife Cebu bar review web site. In the site, you can find the probable places like the some nice Cebu bar, from class A to class C bikini bars, spas and club Cebu offers and maybe find the best place for you to chill out and unwind with your girl in Cebu and make her experience a spectacular way of Cebu Dating.

There is nothing like a relaxing massage that can ease up those tired muscles after spending some heavy party in a Cebu bar around the City of Cebu. And what is more relaxing is having a pretty Cebu girl that taps and rubs your entire body, and loosen those tissues and muscles. This is what typically called the famous Cebu massage. When tourist, visitors and local residents what some private relaxation, Cebu massage salons are the places to be to get relaxing experience.

You are in for some relaxing moment in these massage salons, as most of the clients, from foreigners to locals lie down either in a massage bed or in a massage chair and get some private therapeutic experience. In the City, there are a lots of these Cebu massage salons and they types of massage vary from the traditional Hilot, to Thai, to Shiatsu and Swedish massage.

And what is even greater is that massages service is tremendously affordable compared to other countries. The type of massage you get from the different Cebu massage salons and club Cebu spas is said to relieve stress almost instantly, and apart from its healing effect it is believed to have some cleansing and astringent result. In fact, there have been a lot massage salons, heaps of Cebu bars and dozens of club Cebu massage spas popping in most places in the city some served by beautiful girls of Cebu.

So, for those who are some massage, rest assured as you will be in the hands of a well trained Cebuana masseuse. There are beautiful Cebu girl massage therapists waiting for you for only a fraction of a price. Cebu massage salons and club Cebu spas are well known for its world class quality massage experience.

Unfortunately there are some massage salons which are not a really massage spas. Where customers are ask to pick their masseuse from a group of girls in Cebu sitting in a bench, the quality of massage maybe disappointing, but you can always opt for extra service. Homepage Overview of Cebu Nightlife. July 5, at 3: June 22, at 7: June 22, at 9: June 12, at 5: June 11, at 5: June 9, at May 28, at May 25, at 7: May 19, at 1: May 13, at May 11, at 7: May 6, at 8: May 6, at 2: May 6, at 1: May 5, at May 4, at 2: May 1, at 5: April 30, at April 30, at 9: April 30, at 4: April 29, at 9: April 28, at 2: April 24, at 8: April 24, at 6: April 18, at 7: April 14, at 7: April 12, at 5: April 11, at April 8, at 6: April 8, at March 31, at 5: March 30, at 2: March 29, at March 28, at March 26, at 1: March 21, at 1: Good Time RJ says: March 21, at 6: March 16, at 4: March 14, at 2: March 13, at 1: March 12, at March 12, at 8: February 15, at 1: February 14, at February 10, at 5: February 10, at 2: February 5, at 2: February 3, at 9: February 3, at 4: February 1, at January 30, at 4: January 28, at 2: January 26, at 6: January 26, at 9: January 22, at 5: January 22, at January 21, at 3: January 20, at 5: January 20, at 8: June 8, at 5: January 17, at 1: January 15, at 1: January 15, at 3: Micheal Rex Reyes says: January 14, at 2: January 13, at 6: January 13, at 4: January 13, at 3: January 12, at 3: January 11, at 4: January 11, at 1: January 9, at 9: January 7, at January 7, at 6: January 6, at 2: January 5, at 7: January 4, at 4: January 3, at 4: January 3, at 8: January 3, at 1: January 2, at 3: January 1, at 8: December 31, at December 31, at 3: Popular snacks and desserts such as chicharon deep fried pork or chicken skin , halo-halo crushed ice with evaporated milk , flan, sliced tropical fruit , and sweet beans , puto white rice cakes , bibingka rice cake with butter or margarine and salted eggs , ensaymada sweet roll with grated cheese on top , polvoron powder candy , and tsokolate chocolate are usually eaten outside the three main meals.

Every province has its own specialty and tastes vary in each region. In Bicol , for example, foods are generally spicier than elsewhere in the Philippines. Patis fish sauce , suka vinegar , toyo soy sauce , bagoong , and banana ketchup are the most common condiments found in Filipino homes and restaurants.

Local food chains such as Jollibee , Goldilocks Bakeshop , Mang Inasal and Chowking are also popular and have successfully competed against international fast food chains. Education in the Philippines has been influenced by Western and Eastern ideology and philosophy from the United States , Spain , and its neighbouring Asian countries.

Philippine students enter public school at about age four, starting from nursery school up to kindergarten. At about seven years of age, students enter elementary school 6 to 9 years this include Grade 7 to Grade 10 as junior high school , then after, they graduate. Students can make a choice if they will take the college entrance examinations CEE for which they enter college or university 3 to 5 years or find a work after they graduate on senior high school.

Other types of schools in the country include private schools, preparatory schools, international schools, laboratory high schools, and science high schools. Of these schools, private Catholic schools are the most famous. Catholic schools are preferred in the Philippines due to their religious beliefs. Most Catholic schools are co-ed. The uniforms of Catholic schools usually have an emblem along with the school colors.

The school year in the Philippines starts in June and ends in March, with a two-month summer break from April to May, two-week semestral break in October and Christmas and New Year's holidays.

Changes are currently being made to the system and some universities have copied the Westernized academic calendar and now start the school year in August. Arnis , a form of martial arts, is the national sport in the Philippines. Dodgeball , badminton and Tennis are also popular. Filipinos have gained international success in sports.

These are boxing , football , billiards , ten-pin bowling , and chess. The Palarong Pambansa , a national sports festival, has its origin in an annual sporting meet of public schools that started in Private schools and universities eventually joined the national event, which became known as the "Palarong Pambansa" in It serves as a national Olympic Games for students, competing at school and national level contests. The year event included football, golf, archery , badminton, baseball, chess, gymnastics, tennis, softball , swimming, table tennis, taekwondo , track and field, and volleyball.

There are several forms of Filipino martial arts that originated in the Philippines similar to how Silat is the martial arts practiced in Asia including Eskrima weapon-based fighting, also known as Arnis and in the West sometimes as Kali , Panantukan empty-handed techniques , and Pananjakman the boxing component of Filipino martial arts.

One Traditional Filipino game is luksong tinik. A very popular game to Filipino children where one has to jump over the tinik and cross to the other side unscathed. Other traditional Filipino games include yo-yo , piko, patintero, bahay kubo, pusoy, and sungka. Tong-its is a popular gambling game.

Individuals play the game by trying to get rid of all the cards by choosing poker hands wisely. Sungka is played on a board game using small sea shells in which players try to take all shells. The winner is determined by who has the most shells at the point when all small pits become empty. The "Salagubang gong" is a toy described by Charles Brtjes, an American entomologist , who traveled to Negros and discovered a toy using beetles to create a periodic gong effect on a kerosene can as the beetle rotates above the contraption.

Children will draw a sequence rectangles using chalk on the ground. With various level of obstacle on each rectangle, children will compete against one another or in a team. Players use pamato; usually a flat stone, slipper or anything that could be toss easily.

The Indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist of a large number of Austronesian ethnic groups. They are the descendants of the original Austronesian inhabitants of the Philippines, that settled in the islands thousands of years ago, and in the process have retained their Indigenous customs and traditions.

In , more than highland peoples constituted approximately three percent of the Philippine population. Over the centuries, the isolated highland peoples have retained their Indigenous cultures. The folk arts of these groups were, in a sense, the last remnants of Indigenous traditions that flourished throughout the Philippines before the Islamic and Spanish contacts.

The highland peoples are a primitive ethnic group like other Filipinos, although they did not, as a group, have as much contact with the outside world. These peoples displayed a variety of native cultural expressions and artistic skills.

They showed a high degree of creativity such as the production of bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. These peoples ranged from various groups of Igorot people, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi, Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga and Kankana-ey, who built the Rice Terraces thousands of years ago. They have also covered a wide spectrum in terms of their integration and acculturation with Christian Filipinos.

Other Indigenous peoples include the Lumad peoples of the highlands of Mindanao. These groups have remained isolated from Western and Eastern influences. Due to the influx of Christianity, Islam, and other world religions in traditional communities, the indigenous practices, rituals, and spiritual performances and knowledge of indigenous Filipinos are fast disappearing.

Cultural workers in the country suggest the Paiwan Model, which was made by the Taiwanese government to preserve indigenous religions, to save the Philippines' own indigenous religions. The indigenous practices and shamanism of the Paiwan people of Taiwan was the fastest declining religion in the country. This prompted the Taiwanense government to preserve the religion and to push for the establishment of the Paiwan School of Shamanism where religious leaders teach their apprentices the native religion so that it will never be lost.

It became an effective medium in preserving, and even uplifting the Paiwan people's indigenous religion.

In the Philippines, shaminism is referred as dayawism , meaning 'gallant religions that give thanks to all living and non-living things'. As of , there is no established school of dayawism in the Philippines, making the hundreds of indigenous religions in the country in great peril from extinction due to the influx of colonial-era religions.

Each indigenous religion in the Philippines is distinct from each other, possessing unique epics, pantheons, belief systems, and other intangible heritage pertaining to religious beliefs. Due to this immense diversity in indigenous religions, a singular school of dayawism is not feasible.

Rather, hundreds of schools of dayawism pertaining to an ethno-linguistic tribe is a better supplement to the current religious landscape in the Philippines. The Philippines, with the National Commission for Culture and the Arts as the de facto Ministry of Culture, [30] ratified the Convention after its formal deposit in August This prompted the proclamation of the Hudhud chant of the Ifugao in and Darangen epic chant of the Maranao in After the establishment of the Convention, all entries to the Proclamation of Masterpieces were incorporated in the Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in A third inscription was made in through a multinational nomination between Cambodia, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea and Viet Nam for the Tugging Rituals and Games , wherein the Punnuk , tugging ritual of the Ifugao was included.

The elements listed are the first batch of continuous updating process initiated by the government, UNESCO , and other stakeholders. In , the Pinagmulan was a finalist under the category of the Elfren S. The updating began in and results may be released in 5—10 years after the scientific process finishes the second batch of element documentations.

On the contrary, the development and updating of inventories is an ongoing process that can never be finished. Between and , UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage Courier of Asia and the Pacific featured the darangen epic chant, [34] punnuk tugging ritual, [35] and at least three kinds of traditional healing practices in the Philippines, including the manghihilot and albularyo healing practices and belief of buhay na tubig living water of the Tagalog people of 20th century Quezon city, [36] the baglan and mandadawak healing practices and stone beliefs of the Itneg people in Abra , [36] and the mantatawak healing practices of the Tagalog people of Marinduque.

An Overseas Filipino is a person of Filipino origin, who lives outside of the Philippines. This term is applied to people of Filipino ancestry, who are citizens or residents of a different country. Often, these Filipinos are referred to as Overseas Filipino Workers. There are about 11 million overseas Filipinos living worldwide, equivalent to about 11 percent of the total population of the Philippines.

Each year, thousands of Filipinos migrate to work abroad through overseas employment agencies and other programs. Other individuals emigrate and become permanent residents of other nations. Overseas Filipinos often work as doctors, nurses, accountants, IT professionals, engineers, architects, [40] entertainers, technicians, teachers, military servicemen, students, caregivers, domestic helpers, and household maids. International employment includes an increasing number of skilled Filipino workers taking on unskilled work overseas, resulting in what has been referred to as brain drain , particularly in the health and education sectors.

Also, the employment can result in underemployment , for example, in cases where doctors undergo retraining to become nurses and other employment programs. Festivals in the Philippines, locally known as fiestas , originated dating back to the Spanish colonial period when the Spaniards introduced Christianity to the country. Most Philippine towns and cities has a patron saint assigned to each of them. Fiestas in the Philippines serve as either religious, cultural, or both.

These festivals are held to honor the patron saint or to commemorate history and culture, such as promoting local products and celebrate a bountiful harvest.

Fiestas can be categorized by Holy Masses , processions , parades , theatrical play and reenactments , religious or cultural rituals, trade fairs , exhibits , concerts , pageants and various games and contests. The Philippines is home to numerous heritage towns and cities, many of which have been intentionally destroyed by the Japanese through fire tactics in World War II and the Americans through bombings during the same war. After the war, the government of the Empire of Japan withheld from giving funds to the Philippines for the restoration of the heritage towns they destroyed, effectively destroying any chances of restoration since the pre-war Philippines' economy was devastated and had limited monetary supply.

On the other hand, the United States gave minimal funding for only two of the hundreds of cities they destroyed, namely, Manila and Baguio. Today, only the centres poblacion or downtown areas of Filipino heritage towns and cities remain in most of the expansive heritage cities and towns in the country.

Yet, some heritage cities in their former glory prior to the war still exist, such as the UNESCO city of Vigan which was the only heritage town saved from American bombing and Japanese fire and kamikaze tactics.

Due to this, unaesthetic cement or shanty structures have taken over heritage buildings annually, destroying many former heritage townscapes. Some heritage buildings have been demolished or sold to corporations, and have been replaced by commercial structures such as shopping centers, condominium units, or newly-furnished modern-style buildings, completely destroying the old aesthetics of many former heritage towns and cities.

Only the heritage city of Vigan has a town law that guarantees its singular architecture the Vigan colonial style shall always be used in constructions and reconstructions. While Silay, [41] Iloilo City, and San Fernando de Pampanga have ordinances giving certain tax exemptions to owners of heritage houses. In , the Philippine Cultural Heritage Act passed into law, effectively giving protections to all cultural heritage properties of the Philippines. However, despite its passage, many ancestral home owners continue to approve the demolition of ancestral structures.

In certain cases, government entities themselves were the purveyors of such demolitions. The bill is expected to pass into law by late or early as it was declared a priority legislation by both houses of Congress. If the bill reaches its deadline, a secretary of culture will be appointed by June—July Throughout the nation, there are many heritage cities and towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Architecture of the Philippines. Nipa hut , Ancestral houses of the Philippines , and Earthquake Baroque. Religion in the Philippines. Art of the Philippines. Music in the Philippines and Harana serenade. Literature of the Philippines and Suyat. The last regular elections to the House for the 44th Congress were held, in California. The Democrats gained 90 seats, transforming their caucus from a small minority to a dominant majority. Plaisted was seated in the House following a special election in Maine's 4th congressional district to fill Hersey's vacancy.

A reverend allied with settlers on the Maxwell Land Grant was found murdered in the canyon of the Cimarron River. Pennsylvania gubernatorial election, Pennsylvania governor John F. Minnesota gubernatorial election, Crapo was seated in the House following a special election in Massachusetts's 1st congressional district to fill Buffington's vacancy.

A forces of Texas Rangers crossed into Tamaulipas in pursuit of stolen cattle and came into armed conflict with Mexican militia in which at least eighty were killed. The Texas Rangers took a Mexican customs officer hostage.

The cattle were returned to the United States. Norton was seated in the House following a special election in New York's 33rd congressional district to fill the vacancy left by the death of representative-elect Augustus F. Allen , also a Republican. Democrat Haywood Yancey Riddle was seated in the House following a special election in Tennessee's 4th congressional district to fill Fite's vacancy.

The National League of baseball was founded. The Centennial Exposition , in Philadelphia , was held. A decision in Munn v. Illinois established the public regulation of utilities. Battle of Little Bighorn took place. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. The Electoral Commission awarded Rutherford B.

The Reconstruction era of the United States ended. The Bland—Allison Act was passed. The first Morgan silver dollar was minted. The University of Southern California was founded. The population of the United States passed 50 million. Gunfight at the O. A gunfight takes place in Tombstone , Arizona Territory. James Garfield was inaugurated President of the United States.

Arthur was inaugurated President of the United States. Clara Barton founded the American Red Cross. The Tuskegee Institute was founded. Billy the Kid was shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed. A decision in the Civil Rights Cases legalizes the doctrine of racial segregation. Grover Cleveland was inaugurated as President. The Washington monument was completed. The Haymarket riot took place. Looking Backward , by Edward Bellamy , was published.

The National Geographic Society was founded. Benjamin Harrison became President. North Dakota , South Dakota became the 39th and 40th states. Washington became the 42nd state. Johnstown flood of A dam failure and fire in Pennsylvania. Jane Addams founded Hull House. The Land Run of began. The Sherman Antitrust Act was passed. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was passed.

The McKinley tariff was passed. Yosemite National Park was created. The Wounded Knee massacre took place. The Baltimore crisis took place.

Cleveland was inaugurated President for a second term. The Sherman Silver Purchase Act was repealed. Coxey's Army marched on Washington, D.

The Pullman strike took place. The Wilson—Gorman Tariff Act , including an income tax, was passed. Democratic congressman Thomas H. Paynter of Kentucky's 9th congressional district resigned following his appointment to the Kentucky Court of Appeals.

Burrows of Michigan's 3rd congressional district was elected to fill the Senate seat representing Michigan fellow Republican John Patton Jr. Republican Lee Mantle was elected to the Senate from Montana. The Supreme Court reached a decision in Sparf v. It established some standards for acceptable confessions and held that federal judges are not required to instruct juries of their right of jury nullification.

In a decision in United States v. Clark was elected to the Senate from New York. The Maguire Act of , which ended imprisonment for sailor deserters in certain cases, came into force. Wilson was elected to the Senate from Washington. Jorden was seated in the House after a special election to the seat representing Pennsylvania's 15th congressional district to fill the vacancy left by the death of fellow Republican Myron Benjamin Wright. Cuban War of Independence: Uprisings against Spanish rule began across Cuba.

In a decision in Coffin v. United States , the Supreme Court held that criminal defendants are presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt , and that judges presiding over juries must advise them of that fact.

Democratic congressman James C. Black of Georgia's 10th congressional district resigned. A mob of white union dockworkers killed six blacks in New Orleans following an announcement that many of them would be laid off and replaced with cheaper black labor.

The Supreme Court held in a decision in Pollock v. Nicaragua Crisis of Halma won a running of the Kentucky Derby in Louisville, Kentucky. British forces were forced to withdraw from Corinto, Nicaragua under the terms of the Clayton—Bulwer Treaty. Republican congressman William Cogswell of Massachusetts's 6th congressional district died. Land Run of A run took place on former Kickapoo land in the Oklahoma Territory.

In a decision in In re Debs , the Supreme Court held that a federal injunction ordering participants in the Pullman Strike back to work was authorized under the Commerce Clause. The Supreme Court reached a decision in Hilton v.

Guyot in which it described the application of the principle of comity to the enforcement of foreign judgments in the United States. Venezuelan crisis of Leading black intellectual Booker T. Washington delivered a speech in Atlanta advocating for the Atlanta Compromise , which would preserve segregation and white political supremacy but allow blacks due process and basic education. Black was reelected to his own House seat.

Horace Rawlins won the inaugural U. Open in Newport, Rhode Island. North Carolina football game: United States House of Representatives election in Utah, Republicans were elected to several statewide offices in New York. Prince , Alfred Milnes and William F. Hadley were seated in the House seats left vacant by Post , Burrows and Remann , respectively.

Democratic congressman Lawrence E. McGann was removed from the House following a successful challenge of his credentials by his election opponent, Republican Hugh R. A decision in Plessy v. Ferguson affirms the legality of " separate but equal " public facilities.

William Jennings Bryan delivered his Cross of Gold speech. Gold was discovered in the Yukon 's Klondike region. William McKinley became President. The Boston subway was completed. The Republic of Hawaii was annexed. The Newlands Resolution was passed. The American Anti-Imperialist League was organized. The Open Door Policy was announced. Secretary of State John Hay called for an Open Door Policy among the major powers dividing China into spheres of influence and permitting its free trade with all of them.

McKinley placed Alaska under martial law. Democratic congressman -elect B. Roberts of Utah was expelled from the House for practicing polygamy. A dynamite explosion at a quarry north of Trenton, Michigan killed one worker. Bard was elected to the Senate from California. San Francisco plague of — The first victim of plague in San Francisco fell ill in Chinatown. Republican congressman Charles A. Chickering of New York's 24th congressional district died after falling from a fourth-story window in New York.

An attempted robbery of a Wells Fargo express car was thwarted in Fairbank, Arizona. One would-be robber was killed. McKinley placed Tutuila under the jurisdiction of the Department of the Navy. Democratic congressman Gaston A. Robbins of Alabama's 4th congressional district was unseated after it was determined that Republican William F. Aldrich had beaten him in his election. Democratic representative William Albin Young of Virginia's 2nd congressional district was removed from office following a contest of his election by his opponent, Republican Richard Alsop Wise.

Aldrich was seated in the House seat representing Alabama's 4th congressional district. The Gold Standard Act , which established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, ending the use of silver, was signed into law.

William McKinley appointed the Taft Commission , a five-member commission headed by William Howard Taft , to act as a civilian government for the Philippines. Military governor Richard P. Leary of Guam abolished slavery on the island.

American forces captured Bohol. A dam near Austin, Texas burst, killing some one hundred people. Battle of Cagayan de Misamis: American forces repelled a Philippine surprise attack at Cagayan de Oro. The Foraker Act , establishing a civilian government for Puerto Rico , was signed into law. Philippine forces attacked and besieged an American force at Catubig, Northern Samar. The United States and indigenous chiefs on Tutuila signed the Treaty of Cession of Tutuila recognizing American sovereignty over the island.

Louisiana gubernatorial election, The American forces at Catubig, Northern Samar were rescued. The town fell to Philippine forces. The Hawaiian Organic Act organizing the Territory of Hawaii and granting citizenship of the United States to its residents was signed into law.

Charles Herbert Allen took office as governor of Puerto Rico. A dust explosion at a mine near Scofield, Utah killed over two hundred miners. Gibson won a running of the Kentucky Derby in Louisville, Kentucky. Louis streetcar strike of A riot developed in St.

Battle of Agusan Hill: An American regiment dislodged Philippine forces from a hill in Cagayan de Oro. Clark of Montana resigned under pressure from the Senate due to revelations that he had bribed members of the Montana Legislature for his election. The Supreme Court held in a decision in Taylor v. Beckham that state elected office is not property for the purposes of the Fourteenth Amendment and that it had no jurisdiction in the case, which pertained to a disputed gubernatorial election in Kentucky.

The Lacey Act of , which criminalizes the taking of illegally captured wildlife across state lines, was signed into law. A census began to be taken which would count some eighty million in the United States and whose subsequent congressional apportionment would grant the greatest increases in representation to Illinois , New York and Texas.

Battle of Makahambus Hill: A Philippine force ambushed and pinned down an American battalion in modern Cagayan de Oro , dealing some twenty casualties before withdrawing. Cuban local elections, The pro-independence Cuban National Party did better than expected in Cuban local elections.

Boxers surrounded and ambushed an Eight-Nation Alliance force at Langfang , killing seven and forcing their retreat to Tianjin. Siege of the International Legations: German diplomat Clemens von Ketteler was murdered on his way to request the protection of the Chinese government against Boxer rebels approaching the Beijing Legation Quarter in Beijing. McKinley was unanimously nominated the candidate of the Republican Party for the presidency at a convention in Philadelphia.

Governor Theodore Roosevelt of New York was unanimously nominated the Republican candidate for the vice presidency minus his own abstention. A streetcar left the tracks at a sharp curve in Tacoma, Washington , plunging into a ravine and killing forty passengers. At a convention in Kansas City, Missouri , the Democratic Party adopted a platform deploring the occupation of Cuba and the Philippines and calling for bimetallism and the regulation of monopolies.

The Democratic Party nominated Bryan its nominee for the presidency and former vice president Adlai Stevenson I its nominee for the vice presidency. An angry crowd of whites gathered in New Orleans after a white police officer was shot and killed by black laborer Robert Charles. A tornado caused some fifteen thousand dollars in damage near New Rochelle, New York.

A lawn tennis tournament began in Boston in which the American team would beat the British. Battle of Peking An army of the Eight-Nation Alliance arrived at Beijing and came into conflict with Boxers and Chinese government troops.

The Chinese empress dowager Empress Dowager Cixi fled. A hurricane made landfall at Galveston, Texas which would kill as many as twelve thousand people in a single day. Battle of Pulang Lupa: A Philippine force ambushed and decisively defeated an American one at Marinduque. Cuban Constitutional Assembly election, An election was held to an upcoming constitutional convention in Cuba.

A coalition of the conservative Republican and Democratic Union Parties won a majority of seats. A Philippine force dealt heavy casualties to an American one at Mabitac, Laguna. Murder of George E. Bailey was shot and killed by his alcoholic employee John C. Best at his farm in Saugus, Massachusetts. A sheriff in northern Michigan permitted a local land speculator to burn the homes of the Burt Lake Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians on the strength of his purchase of the tax title to their land.

The Brooklyn Superbas beat the Pittsburgh Pirates in the fourth baseball game of a best-of-five series in Pittsburgh. Alabama gubernatorial election, A constitutional convention for Cuba opened in Havana. The Republican Party gained seats in the House , increasing its majority at the expense of the Democratic and People's Parties. An election was held to statewide office in New York which produced victories for the entire Republican ticket.

Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Washington , clarifying in exchange for one hundred thousand dollars the Treaty of Paris to indicate that Spain ceded to the United States the islands of Mapun and Sibutu. The working class People's Party was founded in Cuba. Los Angeles mayoral election, The Hay—Pauncefote Treaty was signed.

The Elkins Act was signed into law. The Drago Doctrine was announced. The Newlands Reclamation Act was signed into law. The Ford Motor Company was formed. The Department of Commerce and Labor was created. The Hay—Bunau-Varilla Treaty was signed. The movie The Great Train Robbery premieres.

The Wright brothers made their first powered flight in the Wright Flyer. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was issued. The Niagara Falls conference was held. Women's suffrage and civil rights activist Susan B. The Hepburn Act was signed into law. President Theodore Roosevelt was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his role in negotiating the end of the Russo-Japanese war; becoming the first statesman to win a Nobel Prize.

The Tillman Act was signed into law. The Gentlemen's Agreement of was signed. Oklahoma was admitted to the Union, becoming the 46th state. A coal mine exploded in Monongah, West Virginia , killing at least The Aldrich—Vreeland Act was signed into law. The Ford Model T appeared on the market. The Root—Takahira Agreement was reached. William Howard Taft implemented Dollar Diplomacy. Robert Peary became the first person to reach the North Pole.

The first redesigned Lincoln Penny was released to the public. The Boy Scouts of America was created. The Mann—Elkins Act was signed into law. The Mann Act was signed into law. The Payne—Aldrich Tariff Act was signed into law. Standard Oil Company v. The Supreme Court found Standard Oil guilty of monopolizing the petroleum industry; subsequently dividing Standard Oil into several geographically separate firms.

The first Indianapolis was held; being won by Ray Harroun. New Mexico was admitted to the Union, becoming the 47th. Arizona was admitted to the Union, becoming the 48th state. The RMS Titanic crashed into an iceberg in the northern Atlantic Ocean, sinking the ship entirely less than three hours the initial collision, killing over 1, of the 2, passengers aboard.

Former President Theodore Roosevelt was shot, but not killed, while campaigning for President as the candidate for the progressive Bull Moose Party. The Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , establishing an income tax , was ratified.

The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , establishing direct election of Senators , was ratified. After mass civilian casualties in the Battle of Bud Bagsak , the Moro 's surrendered their rebellion , ending the Philippine—American War. The Underwood Tariff was signed into law. Henry Ford developed the modern assembly line. The camps of striking coal miners were attacked by the Colorado National Guard ; killing 25, including 11 children. The first Mother's Day was observed.

The Federal Trade Commission was established. The Clayton Antitrust Act was signed into law. The controversial movie The Birth of a Nation opened in Los Angeles, becoming the largest-grossing movie at the time. The Adamson Railway Labor Act was signed into law. The Federal Farm Loan Act was signed into law. The Jones Act was signed into law. The Zimmermann telegram was published, helping shift public opinion in favor of U. Puerto Rico becomes part of the United States of America.

The United States declared war on Germany , beginning the U. The Espionage Act was signed into law. The Lansing—Ishii Agreement was signed. The scare, marked by a widespread fear of Bolshevism and anarchism , began. President Woodrow Wilson 's Fourteen Points , which assured citizens that the war was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe, was issued. The Sedition Act of was signed into law; forbidding the "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" against the United States government during a time of war.

The Treaty of Versailles ended the war. A deflationary recession began in the United States. Authorities arrested some three thousand suspected communists and anarchists in raids across the country. The Eighteenth Amendment and Volstead Act came into force, forbidding the production, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages. See Prohibition in the United States. Oahu Sugar Strike of Filipino American sugar plantation workers in Hawaii went on strike for higher wages.

United States that copies of illegally obtained evidence are also inadmissible as evidence. The Mineral Leasing Act of , which allowed for the leasing of public lands for the extraction of natural resources, was passed by the Congress.

Two store owners in Ruby, Arizona were murdered by Mexicans , probably followers of the revolutionary general Pancho Villa.

Democratic representative Edward W. Saunders resigned following his election to the Virginia Supreme Court. The United States Railroad Administration returned control of the railroads to its constituent companies under the terms of the Esch—Cummins Act , which also officially encouraged consolidation of private railroads.

The Supreme Court held in a decision in Eisner v. Macomber that a pro rata stock dividend that does not increase one's ownership in a company cannot be considered taxable income under the Constitution. A blizzard began in North Dakota which would kill some thirty people. The Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles. Republican representative William J. Browning of New Jersey's 1st congressional district died.

An outbreak of tornadoes in the Midwest and South killed nearly four hundred people. The Death on the High Seas Act was signed into law, permitting damages to be collected by survivors in the event of the wrongful death in international waters of a member of the Merchant Marine. Congress passed the Phelan Act of , authorizing the Federal Reserve Banks to offer discounts to member banks taking large loans.

In a decision in Missouri v. April tornado outbreak: An outbreak of tornadoes in the Southeast began which would claim over two hundred lives and injure over a thousand. Anaconda Copper security fired on striking mine workers in Butte, Montana , killing one and injuring twenty. A debate was held in Washington, D. Secret Court of Harvard dean Chester Noyes Greenough convened a special tribunal to investigate homosexual activity at the college.

The Supreme Court held in a decision in Hawke v. Smith that a referendum in Ohio nullifying the Ohio General Assembly 's ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment was unconstitutional and void.

Congress passed the Merchant Marine Act of , prohibiting foreign vessels from transporting goods by sea between American ports. The Federal Power Act , which created the Federal Power Commission and transferred to it, from the states, the authority to issue licenses to construct dams, was passed by the Congress. Republican congressman Edmund Platt resigned his seat representing New York's 26th congressional district following his appointment to the Federal Reserve Board of Governors.

A national convention of the Republican Party convened in Chicago which would select dark horse compromise candidate Warren G. Harding , senator from Ohio , as its nominee for the presidency.

Three black circus workers were lynched by a mob in Duluth, Minnesota following a false rape accusation. Cox as its presidential nominee after forty-four ballots. Republican representative Dick Thompson Morgan died. Denver streetcar strike of Federal troops placed Denver under martial law , ending the violence and the strike.

Ted Ray won the U. Open in Toledo, Ohio. The Nineteenth Amendment was ratified, granting women the right to vote. Jock Hutchinson won the final of the golf tournament, held in Flossmoor, Illinois. A tennis tournament opened in Forest Hills, Queens. Some fifteen thousand UMW miners went on strike in Alabama. A horse-drawn carriage bomb probably planted by followers of the anarchist Luigi Galleani in the financial district of New York City killed some forty people and injured over a hundred.

A hurricane dissipated over eastern Kansas after causing one death and over a million dollars in damage in Louisiana. The Cleveland Indians defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers in seven games. United States elections, The Republican Party strengthened its majorities in the House and Senate.

Republican congressman Mahlon Morris Garland died. Wilson addressed a joint session of the Congress. Wheeler , the Supreme Court held that the Constitution did not grant the federal government the power to punish a private citizen's violation of another's freedom of movement. The Emergency Quota Act was signed into law.

The Tulsa Race riot occurred; resulting in the deaths of up to African-Americans and leaving more than 8, homeless. The first meeting of the Washington Disarmament Conference of was held. The Fordney—McCumber Tariff was signed into law. Harding died of a heart attack at the Palace Hotel in San Francisco. Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall resigned as a result of the scandal. Edgar Hoover was appointed director of the Bureau of Investigation.

The Immigration Act Basic Law was signed into law. Davis and Wisconsin Senator Robert M. High school teacher John T. Scopes was found guilty of violating Tennessee's Butler Act , for teaching human evolution in the classroom. Nellie Tayloe Ross was elected Governor of Wyoming , becoming the first woman elected governor of a U. The broadcast network NBC was founded. Andrew Kehoe detonated over pounds of dynamite and incendiary pyrotol which he planted in an elementary school in Bath Township, Michigan , where he later detonated the first ever car bomb in the U.

Charles Lindbergh made the first trans-Atlantic flight. Sacco and Vanzetti were executed. The Jazz Singer , the first motion picture with sound, was released. The Kellogg—Briand Pact was signed. Disney's animated feature Steamboat Willie , featuring Mickey Mouse, opened. Valentine's Day Massacre became one of the most infamous slaying between rival gangs of the Prohibition era; resulting in the deaths of 7.

Wall Street Crash of The Dow Jones Industrial Average plummeted a record 68 points. American Samoa officially became a United States territory. The Smoot—Hawley Tariff Act was signed into law. The Stimson Doctrine was published. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was established. The Norris—La Guardia Act was signed into law. The Bonus Army protests began in Washington, D.

Amelia Earhart flew solo across the Atlantic Ocean. The Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution , moving the beginning and end of the terms of elected federal officials to January 20, was ratified.