Because it is the shallowest, it is also the warmest of the Great Lakes,  and in this almost became a problem for two nuclear power plants which require cool lake water to keep their reactors cool. Thank you for this beautiful place and the good equipment that we used. Hands of War 2 Expanded Edition. Sunny and cool this morning. Joe Taylor, Glasgow, Ky.
The outlet of the lake at the north end of Lake Couchiching is controlled by Precambrian bedrock which first makes its appearance about mid-way along this lake. As a result, the lake has persisted to the present, with the outlet-flow unable to cut down through the rock, and thereby draining the lake.
This is unlike its one-time smaller sister-lake of 'Lake Minesing' to the west, being a remnant of Lake Algonquin, and, later the Nipissing stage of Lake Huron. This lake's outlet was founded on sediments located near Edenvale, which have largely been cut through, draining most of the lake. Today 'Lake Minesing' exists as the Minesing Swamp, but it re-establishes itself for a short period each spring when spring run-off floods the basin.
Isostatic rebound from the retreat of the last glaciers results in a steady rise of Lake Simcoe, particularly at its south end, and is further responsible for the deep organic sediments that have accumulated in its one-time shallow southern arm, known as the Holland Marsh. Here, organic deposits created by vegetation have largely kept pace with the steady rise in water level, and today supports extensive market gardening. All rivers, and most streams, flowing into the lake have wide, deep, navigable mouths as a consequence of the rising waters drowning the river channels.
Lake Simcoe has been victim to significant eutrophication. Lake Simcoe has seen a dramatic decline in some fish species, along with an increase in algae blooms and aquatic weed growth. Phosphorus emissions from both urban and rural sources have upset the lake's ecosystem and fostered excessive aquatic plant growth, raising water temperatures, and decreasing oxygen levels, thereby rendering limited breeding grounds inhospitable.
Lake Simcoe has been victim to zebra mussel , purple loosestrife , black crappie , spiny water flea , round goby , rusty crayfish and Eurasian milfoil invasions. The zebra mussel, which arrived in North American waters in , originated in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea area and is thought to have been brought to North America in the ballast of foreign freighters.
Zebra mussels are particularly harmful to Lake Simcoe because they increase the clarity of the water allowing sunlight to penetrate to the bottom of the lake, where more algae and aquatic weeds can grow, accelerating the eutrophication process. The Rainbow Smelt are another introduced species and they were first observed in the early s. They were believed to compete with native Lake Whitefish and be somewhat responsible for a decline in their populations. Several towns and communities on the lakeshore depend on Lake Simcoe for their drinking water.
Despite its delicate ecological balance, and its recovering freshwater fishery, the Region of York is currently finalizing plans for a large capacity sewage treatment plant  to be located on the Holland River in Cook's Bay.
This plant's purpose is to support intensification of development in the Lake Simcoe watershed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lake Simcoe Satellite View. Retrieved 18 December Corporation of the Town of Georgina Official Website. Archived from the original on 15 August Retrieved 17 December Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority. Archived from the original on 26 December Archived from the original on Place Names in Ontario. University of Toronto Press.
Retrieved September 7, Retrieved 18 January Great Lakes of North America. Erie Huron Michigan Ontario Superior. Conference of Great Lakes and St. Retrieved from " https: Coordinates on Wikidata All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Views Read Edit View history.
In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 29 May , at The Lake Erie water snake, a subspecies of the northern water snake Nerodia sipedon , lives in the vicinity of Ohio's Put-in-Bay Harbor, and had been put on the threatened species list. There is a concern that Asian carp might enter the Great Lakes region and alter the ecosystem negatively. There was concern in that snakehead fish could get into the Great Lakes area. They must come to the surface to breathe via their swim bladder.
It gets such huge sizes. It moves over land and it breathes air and it will eat anything it comes into contact with. That's what freaks people out about it, to see a fish moving across land gulping air. There have been incidents of birds dying from botulism , in ,  and in Lake Erie infamously became very polluted in the s and s as a result of the quantity of heavy industry situated in cities on its shores, with reports of bacteria-laden beaches and fish contaminated by industrial waste.
The water quality deteriorated partially due to increasing levels of the nutrient phosphorus  in both the water and lake bottom sediments. The resultant high nitrogen levels in the water caused eutrophication , which resulted in algal blooms and algae masses  and fish kills increasingly fouled the shoreline during this period. There were incidents of the oily surfaces of tributary rivers emptying into Lake Erie catching fire: Each day, Detroit, Cleveland and other municipalities fill Erie with 1.
These chemicals act as fertilizer for growths of algae that suck oxygen from the lower depths and rise to the surface as odoriferous green scum Commercial and game fish—blue pike, whitefish, sturgeon, northern pike—have nearly vanished, yielding the waters to trash fish that need less oxygen. Weeds proliferate, turning water frontage into swamp. In short, Lake Erie is in danger of dying by suffocation. The controls were effective, but it took several decades to take effect; by , there were signs that large numbers of mayflies were spotted on the lake after a forty-year absence, signalling a return to health.
The clearing of the water column is also partly due to the introduction and rapid spread of zebra mussels from Europe , which had the effect of covering "the basin floor like shag carpeting" with each creature filtering "a liter of fresh water a day," helping to restore the lake to a cleaner state. The lake has since become clean enough to allow sunlight to infiltrate its water and produce algae and sea weed, but a dead zone persists in the central Lake Erie Basin during the late summer.
Coli contaminations,  possibly caused by storm water overflows after heavy downpours. Since the s environmental regulation has led to a great increase in water quality and the return of economically important fish species such as walleye and other biological life.
The globs of oil, the multicolored industrial discharges, the flotsam from shoreline cities, the fecal and bacterial wastes are no longer dumped in the lakes in vast quantities. There was a tentative exploratory plan to capture CO 2 , compress it to a liquid form, and pump it a half-mile m beneath Lake Erie's surface underneath the porous rock structure. Lake Erie is home to one of the world's largest freshwater commercial fisheries. Lake Erie's fish populations are the most abundant of the Great Lakes, partially because of the lake's relatively mild temperatures and plentiful supply of plankton , which is the basic building block of the food chain.
Common non-indigenous fish species include the rainbow smelt , alewife , white perch and common carp. Non-native sport fish such as rainbow trout and brown trout are stocked specifically for anglers to catch.
Attempts failed to stock coho salmon and its numbers are once again dwindling. Commercial landings are dominated by yellow perch and walleye , with substantial quantities of rainbow smelt and white bass also taken. Anglers target walleye and yellow perch, with some effort directed at rainbow trout. A variety of other species are taken in smaller quantities by both commercial and sport fleets. In the s and s, as pollution in the lake declined, counts of walleyes which were caught grew from , in to 4.
The combination of overfishing and the eutrophication of the lake by pollution caused the population to collapse, and in the mids, one species of walleye called the blue walleye was declared extinct. But the Lake Erie walleye was reportedly having record numbers, even in , according to one report. The longest fish in Lake Erie is reportedly the sturgeon which can grow to ten feet long and weight pounds, but it is an endangered species and mostly lives on the bottom of the lake.
Estimates vary about the fishing market for the Great Lakes region. But since high levels of pollution were discovered in the s and s, there has been continued debate over the desired intensity of commercial fishing.
Commercial fishing in Lake Erie has been hurt by the bad economy as well as government regulations which limit the size of their catch; one report suggested that the numbers of fishing boats and employees had declined by two-thirds in recent decades.
The other feared the lake was being emptied. Commercial fishing is now predominantly based in Canadian communities, with a much smaller fishery—largely restricted to yellow perch —in Ohio.
One account suggested that Canadian fishermen are "still at it and making money" and they "know how to fish" by "using the old nets. However, there are reports that some Canadian commercial fishermen are dissatisfied with fishing quotas, and have sued their government about this matter, and there have been complaints that the legislative body writing the quotas is "dominated by the U. Still, the commercial fishery is the target of critics who would like to see the lake managed for the exclusive benefit of sport fishing and the various industries serving the sport fishery.
In November , Ontario's oldest and largest fish processor known as Great Lakes Fish Corporation was shut down after operating for a hundred years; workers were laid off and numerous spinoff jobs disappeared, such as jobs at local restaurants and net repair shops.
The lake can be thought of as a common asset with multiple purposes including being a fishery. There was direct competition between commercial fishermen and sport fishermen including charter boats and sales of fishing licenses throughout the lake's history, with both sides seeking government assistance from either Washington or Ottawa , and trying to make their case in the "court" of public opinion through newspaper reporting. Management of the fishery is by consensus of all management agencies with an interest in the resource and include the states of New York , Pennsylvania , Ohio , Michigan and the province of Ontario , and work under the mandate of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
The commission makes assessments using sophisticated mathematical modeling systems. The Commission has been the focus of considerable recrimination, primarily from angler and charter fishing groups in the U. This conflict is complex, dating from the s and earlier, with the result in the United States that, in , commercial fishing was mostly eliminated from Great Lakes states.
One report suggests that battling between diverse fishing interests began around Lake Michigan and evolved to cover the entire Great Lakes region. The lake also supports a strong sport fishery. While commercial fishing declined, sport fishing has remained. The deep cool waters that spawn the best fishing is in the Canadian side of the lake. In winter when the lake freezes, many fishermen go out on the ice, cut holes, and fish.
It is even possible to build bonfires on the ice. In a freak incident in , warming temperatures and winds of 35 miles per hour and currents pushing eastward dislodged a miles-wide ice floe which broke away from the shore, trapping more than fishermen offshore; one man died while the rest were rescued by helicopters or boats.
The day began with fishermen setting down wooden pallets to create a bridge over a crack in the ice so they could roam farther out on the lake. But the planks fell into the water when the ice shifted, stranding the fishermen about 1, yards offshore When fishermen realized late Saturday morning that the ice had broken away, they began to debate the best way off. Some chose to sit and wait for authorities, while others headed east in search of an ice bridge Others managed to get to land on their own by riding their all-terrain vehicles about five miles east to where ice hadn't broken away.
When the rescued fishermen made it to shore, authorities had them line up single-file to take down their names. The lake's formerly more extensive lakebed creates a favorable environment for agriculture in the bordering areas of Ontario, Ohio, Michigan, Pennsylvania, and New York. The Lake Erie sections of western New York State have a suitable climate for growing grapes, and in Chautauqua County there have been many vineyards and wineries in the area as well as in Erie County in northwestern Pennsylvania.
The drainage basin has led to well fertilized soil. The north coast of Ohio is widely referred to as its nursery capital. Lake Erie is a favorite for divers since there are many shipwrecks, perhaps 1, to 8, according to one estimate,  of which about are "confirmed shipwreck locations. There are efforts to identify shipwreck sites and survey the lake floor to map the location of underwater sites, possibly for further study or exploration.
Among the diving community, they are considered world class, offering opportunities to visit an underwater museum that most people will never see. In , the 19th-century sidewheeler Atlantic was discovered. Dow , the Elderado "steamer-cum-barge" ,  the W. Hanna ,  the Dundee which sank north of Cleveland in ,  the F.
Prince ,  and The Craftsman. The finding of the well-preserved wreck of the Canadian-built British troop transport warship Caledonia , sunk during the War of , has led to accusations about plundering of the site and legal wrangling about whether the vessel should be resurfaced in time for the war's bicentennial. There are numerous public parks around the lake.
In western Pennsylvania, a wildlife reserve was established in in Springfield Township for hiking , fishing , cross-country skiing and walking along the beach. Crystal Beach, in the village of Crystal Beach, Ontario , at the eastern end of the lake, is one of several South-facing beaches on the Canadian side. It is therefore well situated for sun-bathers, facing the sun from sunrise to sunset. Lake Erie islands tend to be in the westernmost part of the lake and have different characters.
Some of them include:. Kayaking has become more popular along the lake, particularly in places such as Put-in-Bay, Ohio.
The lake is dotted by distinct lighthouses. A lighthouse off the coast of Cleveland , beset with cold lake winter spray, has an unusual artistic icy shape, although sometimes ice prevents the light from being seen by maritime vessels.
A New York Times reporter, biking through the region in , found the Ontario town of Port Stanley to be the "prettiest of the port towns" with a lively "holiday air" but no "ticky-tacky commercialism".
There are numerous vineyards around the lake, including ones on Pelee Island which makes wines including pinot noir, riesling and chardonnay. People can rent summer houses and cabins near the lake to enjoy the beaches, swimming, as well as be close to activities such as wine tours and fishing and water parks.
It was described as a "spit of sand, trees and swamp that arcs off the shore" with seafood restaurants and beautiful sunsets. I spent the next couple of hours riding that guy's creaky, brown three-speed across the flat, open island in a flawless summer breeze. I saw kilometres of gentle, swaying soybean fields. Occasional dense stands of trees. A red-brick schoolhouse attended by 10 children.
A dozen cars — most of the drivers offering a wave. Certainly no chains or corporations. And that's the point Pleasure boat operators offer dinner cruises in the Cleveland area on the Cuyahoga River as well as Lake Erie. The lake has been a "bustling thoroughfare" for maritime vessels for centuries.
Generally there is heavy traffic on the lake except during the winter months from January through March when ice prevents vessels from traveling safely. The ship traffic in Lake Erie being the highest among the Great Lakes  and roughest of the lakes has led to it having the highest number of known shipwrecks in the Great Lakes.
There have been other accidents as well; for example, in according to The Star , crewmen from the freighter Hermann Schoening were sickened by phosphine gas which had been used to fumigate or control pests; rescuers took them by tugboat to receive medical attention. The current port facility is unable to handle larger cargo ships, and the cranes needed to lift goods such as steel to truck trailers are insufficient to meet current shipping standards.
However, plans to operate a ferryboat between the U. In , debris from a plane carrying 9 people was found off Lake Erie isle. Since the border between the two nations is largely unpatrolled, it is possible for people to cross undetected from one country to the other, in either direction, by boat. In , Canadian police arrested persons crossing the border illegally from the United States to Canada, near the Ontario town of Amherstburg.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lake Erie disambiguation. The Great Lakes , with Lake Erie highlighted in darker blue. Nass of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette , .
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. The New York Times Almanac ed. New York, New York: Great Lakes Information Network.
Archived from the original on January 4, Retrieved December 10, Placenames of the World: Retrieved January 26, Archived from the original on August 24, The New York Times. Retrieved March 15, Retrieved January 24, Archived from the original on February 10, Archived from the original on August 25, Also, the western end of Lake Erie is the thunderstorm capital of Canada — the lightning displays are breathtaking, the winds can hit gale force, and, due to the lake's shallowness, the waves build very quickly.
Roddy September 30, Richard January 25, Retrieved January 25, Comeback for the Great Lakes". Bathymetry of Lake Huron. Bathymetry of Lake Ontario. Archived from the original on May 5, Retrieved April 2, The Late, Great Lakes: An Environmental History , p. Wayne State University Press. The Great Lakes Historical Society. Archived from the original on August 14, Archived from the original on August 23, When thermometer plummets, tactics change on Lake Erie tributaries".
Three men were clinging to the masthead, but he could render no assistance, owing to the gale and high seas. Also creating the snow belt from Cleveland to Buffalo. How would you like to shovel 10 feet of snow each winter?
That's not uncommon for some locations downwind of the Great Lakes, where snowfall averages more than inches annually. Archived from the original on January 28, Retrieved on July 24, And a nonprofit development group formed recently near Cleveland with an eye toward promoting construction of hundreds of turbines in Lake Erie.
Archived from the original on February 23, Retrieved July 8, The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on August 28, Archived from the original on August 22, On the Erie shores, a very eerie sight". Archived from the original on September 21, The newest invader swarming in the Great Lakes is the bloody-red shrimp and they're bloody likely to have a negative impact".
Archived from the original on January 18, Archived from the original on January 2, Archived from the original on March 21, The New York Times: Pollution in the Great Lakes: Michigan Department of Natural Resources.